In diagnostic nuclear medicine a number of short-lived gamma emitters such as technetiumm are used. The remainder of this paper will address only deep geological disposal on land, as this is currently the preferred disposal option throughout the OECD countries and, indeed, worldwide.
Corrosion or leaching models are fitted to the experimental results, and a model is used to extrapolate the results to very long time periods.
This is because the uncertainty and spatial variability of heat conduction parameters of both man-made material and natural geological media are small, and therefore the uncertainty in the temperature distribution as a function of time is small.
Distributional equity. However, our knowledge of these laws may be incomplete and may develop as more experience is gained. In addition, the potential interplay between these processes must be understood see reference 4.
In pyrometallurgical fast reactorsthe separated plutonium and uranium are contaminated by actinides and cannot be used for nuclear weapons. The lack of public trust in experts, industry, and government is not a phenomenon peculiar to radioactive waste disposal.
Other challenges are to predict the oxidation state of the leached radionuclides, and therefore their solubility the effect of radiolysis being taken into accountand to predict the potential chemical forms of these radionuclides.
The issue is to know which laws apply during the relevant time scales so that we can assure proper application of current knowledge to be able to identify key parameters with sufficient accuracy.
Legacy waste[ edit ] Due to historic activities typically related to radium industry, uranium mining, and military programs, numerous sites contain or are contaminated with radioactivity.