What tense should research papers be written in

Should the introduction or literature review be written in the present tense or past tense? However, do not make the Introduction too broad.

which tense is used in article writing

The paper should read as a narrative in which the author describes what was done and what results were obtained from that work.

Methodology and results: To talk about your methods or results, use the past simple or present perfect. A summary is a brief restatement of preceding text that is intended to orient a reader who has studied the preceding text.

past tense paper

The quantitative estimation of labelling, which represented the average number of gold particles per mm2, indicated the labelling over the nuclear NLBs to be twice as strong as that over the loosened chromatin, and four times as strong as that over the condensed chromatin Table 2.

All background information gathered from other sources must, of course, be appropriately cited.

Past tense method example

Segment lengths were measured using a microscope with microgauge. Exceptions do occur: If several factors were manipulated, all of them do not have to be listed. An abstract is more than a summary. Revision of the theory of phototropism in plants: a new interpretation of a classical experiment. Thus, an analysis of a number of cytokinins in various organs of the wild type and genic male sterile plants was conducted. Do not repeat extensively in the text the data you have presented in tables and figures. Occurrence of indoleacetic acid in the bryophytes. The presence of methyl jasmonate in the atmosphere of chambers containing plants from three species of two families, Solanaceae and Fabaceae, results in the accumulation of proteinase inhibitors in leaves of all three species. All manipulations were carried out under dim green light 3mW m Schizosaccharomyces pombe h90, the homothallic, readily sporing haploid strain, was used.

In other experiments, segments were preincubated for 1 h in small petri dishes containing 1 mM IAA solution, and then raphanusanin B was added to the medium final concentrations 1 or 3 mM.

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Writing About Your Research: Verb Tense